Top 12 Questions about Amoxicillin
What is Amoxicillin?
First of all, it is a strong antibiotic that falls into the group of antibacterial penicillin medicines. It has rather strong antibacterial, bactericidal and even anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, it is maximally efficient for different spheres, such as infection of respiratory tracts, gastro-intestinal system, severe skin and other soft tissues infections. Besides, this remedy is prescribed for peritonitis, cystitis, sinusitis, sepsis, etc. Therefore, Ampicillin is able to help with many disorders and generally called among medical experts a medicine of maximally broad spectrum of action.
Can Amoxicillin be dangerous during pregnancy?
Many medical workers state that harmful influence of this medicine is unlikely. Nevertheless, they prescribe it to pregnant women as an option of last resort. Regardless of the opinion that Amoxicillin is practically harmless even for pregnant, women must not self-medicate with this remedy. This may be fraught with the most severe impairments and dangers for a future baby. Generally, Amoxicillin in assigned only in cases when the potential benefit to the mother outweighs any potential risk to the fetus. Moreover, official medical trials conducted have proven that the remedy is not able to affect neither fetus nor gestation course. The danger of its application may lie not in remedy’s direct pathogenic influence on fetus, but exclusively in underlying risk for hidden bleeding in woman’s organism.
Are Amoxicillin and Ampicillin twin-brothers?
As per Ampicillin and Amoxicillin instructions, one cannot but wonder if these medications have any differences or not. Since both antibiotics belong to one and the same group of semisynthetic penicillins and have identical structure. Indeed, these drugs are almost the same at first sight. Nevertheless, Ampicillin has a number of considerable disadvantages: fast elimination half-life and bad absorption rate. Ampicillin requires to be taken twice oftener than Amoxicillin – 4 times a day. The worst drawback of Ampicillin is low absorption rate – around 60% of active substance clears without reaching destination point. Amoxicillin gets absorbed in accordance to its presentation form by 80-95% as opposed to its forerunner. In comparison with Amoxicillin, Ampicillin has injectable preparation form. Thus, when intramuscular introduction of antibiotic is required, Ampicillin is applied.
What’s Amoxicillin pharmacological effect?
Amoxicillin is composed of sole active substance: amoxicillin trihydrate which is an analogue of ampicillin with slightly changed formula. Pharmacology of all penicillins is based on their capacity to disturb synthesis of cellular walls of sensitive bacteria. Spectrum of Amoxicillin’s pharmacological activity is quite broad. The list of microorganisms sensitive to the drug includes:
- Aerobic gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci.
- Gram-negative infectious agents of gonorrhea, coliform bacterium, shigella, salmonella, klebsiella.
- What is the history of Amoxicillin development?
This product was synthesized by British researchers from Beecham company in 1960. There have been clinical trials of this new drug for 12 years until Amoxicillin hit the stores. It became the second semisynthetic penicillin medication after Ampicillin developed in 1961. As of today, Ampicillin’s achievements are hart to understate: over 57 years, this antibiotic is still being applied all around the globe. The World Health Organization has included this drug to the list of main drugs essential for health care system.
Quick Facts about Amoxicillin
- Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic belonging to penicillin group of wide spectra of action. It is a 4-hydroxyl analogue of Ampicillin.
- This drug takes bactericidal action and is active in regards to aerobic gram-positive bacteria.
- Penicillinase-producing microorganisms are resistant to Amoxicillin. In combination with metronidazole, this drug is active in regards to Helicobacter pylori. It is supposed that Amoxicillin inhibits resistance development of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole.
- After Amoxicillin peroral administration, it is fast absorbed in gastro-intestinal tract and is not destroyed in acidic environment of stomach.
- Maximal concentration of Amoxicillin in blood plasma is achieved in 1-2 hours. In case of dose increase, concentration will increase twice as well.
- Presence of food in stomach doesn’t decrease the overall absorption rate. In case of intravenous and intramuscular introduction and peroral intake, similar concentrations of Amoxicillin in blood are observed. Amoxicillin connection with plasma proteins makes around 20%.
- Amoxicillin is widely spread in tissues and liquids of organism. High concentration of the medication in liver is reported. Elimination half-life from plasma is 1-1,5 hours. Around 60% of the dose taken perorally is cleared in unchanged form with urine by means of filtration through the glomeruli and tubular secretion. In dose of 250mg, Amoxicillin concentration in urine is more than 300 µg/ml. A certain amount of Amoxicillin in cleared in feces.
- Amoxicillin is eliminated by means of hemodialysis.
Amoxicillin Doses and Application Methods
Amoxicillin is a universal medicine allowing a patient to get rid of even a toothache. It is important to rinse mouth cavity with soda-salt liquid before using the antibiotic and follow the instruction.
Amoxicillin (500mg) is prescribed for application by adults and children above 12 years (with body mass more than 40kg). How to administer?
- Tablets are taken perorally.
- Dosage of the drug is prescribed individually, but doesn’t generally differ from application method indicated in the instruction.
- Adult individuals are recommended to take 500mg three times a day. In case a disease is severe and minimal dose is helpless, it may be increased up to 1000mg.
What about children under 12 years, Amoxicillin is issued in the form of suspension. Its flavor is more pleasing and the child will probably agree to swallow it.
- For babies up to 2 years, the dose is calculated due to their weight: 20mg of active substance on 1kg of a baby.
- Children of 2-5 years are given ½ teaspoon at a time.
- Children at the age of 5-12 are prescribed the dose up to 250mg. Amoxicillin is administered thrice a day.
In case of acute gonorrhea, doctors recommend taking 3g of Amoxicillin at a time.
How to prepare a suspension? First of all, boil some water and cool it down till room temperature. The bottle with dry substance has an indication 100ml; water should be poured in the bottle till this indication. Shake the bottle thoroughly. Before each application, the bottle should be shaken, since powder is deposited and less amount of active substance gets in organism than required as per instruction for efficient therapy.
Amoxicillin Side-Effects and Overdose
This drug is counter-indicative in the following cases: cardiac failure at decompensation stage, acute and restoration period after myocardium infraction, heart conduction defects, pronounced arterial hypertension, acute hepatic or renal disorders, blood diseases, peptic ulcer at acute stage, hypertrophy of prostatic gland, atony of urinary bladder, pyloristenosis, adynamic ileus, co-administration with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, pregnancy and lactation period, children up to 6 years (peroral intake), children up to 12 years (for intravenous and intramuscular introduction), hypersensitivity to amitryptiline.
Possible adverse effects are as follows:
- Central nervous system: headache, ataxia, weariness, irrelativeness, vertigo, clinging in ears, drowsiness or insomnia, impaired concentration, nightmares, dysarthria, clouding of consciousness, hallucinations, motor excitement, disorientation, tremor, paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy, EEG alterations.
- Cardio-vascular system: tachycardia, arrhythmia, conduction impairment, lability of arterial blood pressure, intraventricular conduction defects, symptoms of cardiac failure, faint.
- Gastro-intestinal tract: nausea, vomit, heartburn, anorexia, stomatitis, taste impairment, darkening of the tongue, feeling of discomfort in epigastrium, gastralgia, enhanced activity of hepatic transaminases, cholestatic jaundice, diarrhea.
- Endocrine system: increase of male and female mammary glands, galactorrhea, secretion change of posterior pituitary antidiuretic factor, libido and potency alterations.
- Allergic reactions: skin rash, itch, photosensitization, angioneurotic edema, urticarial fever.
- Other: granulocytopenia, leukocytopenia, eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia, purpura, and other blood changes, hair loss, lymphatic knots growth, body mass increase, sweating, etc.
Overdose symptoms: drowsiness, disorientation, blurred consciousness, pupil dilatation, body temperature elevation, labored breathing, dysarthria, anxiety, muscular rigidity, coma, vomit, arrhythmia, cardiac failure, breath inhibition. In case of the afore-mentioned adverse effects, a patient must terminate therapy and undergo gastric lavage, liquid infusion, symptomatic therapy, blood pressure and water-electrolytic balance support.
Alternatives to Amoxicillin (TOP 3)
This is a bactericidal antibiotic belonging to the group of semisynthetic penicillins. It is resistant to penicillinase action. Oxacillin blocks synthesis of cellular wall of bacteria due to destruction of late synthesis stages. It is not active with the majority of viruses, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, rickettsiae and animalculines.
is generally prescribed in case of flu and other infectious diseases. The most part of medicinal products build up tolerance, but this is not the case with Augmentin. Its composition is based on not only amoxicillin which is a derivative of penicillin. The drug contains clavulanic acid providing a stronger impact on microbes. Augmentin is one of the most frequently used medications for quinsy either in adults or in children.
Azithromycin is a semisynthetic antibiotic which is the first representative of azalides subclass. It is developed by Croatian pharmaceutical company, Pliva. Besides, enhances resistance to the action of hydrochloric acid, azithromycin has improved pharmacological features and a wider spectrum of antibacterial effect in comparison with erythromycin. In particular, azithromycin is able to penetrate via cellular coating of gram-negative organisms and it has a more pronounced activeness against H.influenzar and Enterobacteriaceae.
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